The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules.
The diversity of polymers. Carbohydrates. Proteins. Nucleic acids. Lipids.

Prokaryotic cell structure and function.
Cell surface structures. Motility. Internal organization and DNA (nucleoid, plasmids). Binary fission and conjugation
in bacteria.

Eukaryotic cell structure and function.
Plasma Membrane. Compartmentalization. Cytoskeleton. Endomembrane system: endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi
Apparatus and lysosomes. The Nucleus. Ribosomes. Mitochondria.

Cell communication.
Cell junctions. Local and long distant signaling. Chemical messengers. Receptors. The stages of cell signaling.

Cell cycle.
Mitosis and meiosis. Cellular organization of genetic material. Phases of cell cycle. The mitotic spindle. Cytokinesis.
Cellular organization of genetic material. The stages of mitosis and meiosis. A comparison of Mitosis and Meiosis.
Origins of genetic variation among offspring.

Cellular respiration and fermentation.
Catabolic pathways and production of ATP. The stages of cellular respiration (glycolysis, oxidation of puryvate,
citric acid cycle, oxidative phosphorylation). Anaerobic respiration. Types of fermentation.

Structure of viruses. General features of viral replication cycles. Viroids and prions. Viral diseases. Emerging

Bacteria and Archaea.
Cell surface structures. Motility. Internal organization. Reproduction and adaptation. Diverse nutritional and
metabolic adaptation – oxygen and nitrogen metabolism, cooperation. The role in the biosphere (chemical
recycling, ecological interactions). Beneficial and harmful impacts of Prokaryotes on humans.

Structural and functional diversity in Protists. Role of Protists in ecological communities.

Nutrition and Ecology. Body structure. Sexual and asexual reproduction. Fungi as pathogens. Practical uses of fungi.

Chromosomal and Molecular Basis of Inheritance.
The chromosomal basis of sex. Inheritance of X- and Y-linked genes. Alternation of chromosome number and
structure. Human disorders due to chromosomal alternation. Inheritance of organelle genes. DNA as genetic
material. Structural model of DNA. Chromosomes’ structure.

Genetic mechanisms.
The flow of genetic information. Replication: base paring to a template strain, synthesis of new DNA strands.
Transcription: molecular components of transcription, posttranscriptional modifications (alternation of mRNA
ends, RNA splicing). Translation: molecular components of the process. Building of polypeptide. Genetic code. Type
of mutations.
Regulation of Gene Expression (promoters, transcription factors).

Tissues and body membranes.
Structure and physiology of: connective, muscle, epithelial and nervous tissue; serous, mucous, synovial and
cutaneous membranes


Hearing and equilibrium. Visual perception. Taste. Smell. Types of sensory receptors.

Nervous system.
Organization of nervous system. The central nervous system. The organization of human brain. Peripheral nervous
system: motor and autonomic nervous system. Glia. Blood-brain barrier. Nervous system disorders.

 Neurons, synapses and signaling.
Neurons structure and function. Resting and action potential. Conduction of action potentials. Postsynaptic
potential. Neurotransmitters.

 Hormones and endocrine system.
Intercellular communication. Endocrine tissues and organs. Chemical classes of hormones. Multiple effects of
hormones. Simple hormone pathways. Feedback regulation.

Immune system. Innate and adaptive immunity.
Antigen. Antibody. The humoral immune response. The cell-mediated immune response. Inflammatory response.
Immunological memory. Allergies. Immunization (vaccination).

Cardiovascular system.
Organization of human circulatory system. Heart and heart’s rhythmic beat. Blood vessels structure and function.
Blood pressure. Blood composition and function.

Respiratory system.
Organization of human respiratory system. Negative pressure breathing. Hemoglobin.

Digestive system and nutrition.
Essential nutrients. Dietary deficiencies. Organization of human digestive system. Chemical digestion in the human
digestive system. Dental adaptation.

 Human reproduction and development.
Female and male reproductive anatomy. Hormonal control of reproductive system. Gametogenesis. Conception.
Embryonic development. Birth.

Osmoregulation and excretion

.Excretory organs. Kidney structure. Nephron organization and function. Kidney function, water balance and blood pressure.



Atomic theory
Elements and atomic number
Isotopes and atomic weight

 The Periodic Table
The periodic table and some characteristics of different groups
Electronic structure of atoms and electron configurations
Electron configurations and the periodic table
Electron-dot symbols

Ionic Compounds
The octet rule ions and ionic bonds
Periodic properties, ion formation formulas, naming ionic compounds
Some properties of ionic compounds
H + and OH –
ions: an introduction to acids and bases

Molecular Compounds
Covalent bonds and the periodic table
Multiple covalent bonds and coordinate covalent bonds
Characteristics of molecular compounds
Molecular formulas and Lewis structures
Polar covalent bonds and electronegativity, polar molecules
Naming binary molecular compounds
5. Classification and Balancing of Chemical Reactions
Classes of chemical reactions
Chemical equations and balancing chemical equations
Acids, bases, and neutralization reactions
Redox reactions

Mole and Mass Relationships
The mole and Avogadro’s number
Gram–mole conversions

Reaction Rates and Chemical Equilibria.
Endothermic and exothermic chemical reactions
Factors that influence chemical reaction rates
Chemical equilibrium
Equilibrium constants

Nuclear Chemistry
Radioactive half-life

Physical quantities
Metric system of units
Metric units of length
Metric units of mass
Metric units of volume
Significant figures

Fundamental Chemical Laws
Law of conservation of mass
Law of definite proportions
Law of multiple proportions

Chemical Calculations

Mole concept and chemical formulas
Calculations involving chemical equations
Calculations involving volume and concentration

Mixtures and solutions
Units of concentration
DilutionIons in solution: electrolytes

Acids and Bases
Acids and bases in aqueous solution, some common acids and bases
The Brønsted–Lowry definition of acids and bases
Acid dissociation constants. Acid and base strength
Some common acid–base reactions
Acidity and basicity of salt solutions

Measuring acidity in aqueous solution: pH
Buffer solutions

Introduction to Organic Chemistry: Alkanes
The nature of organic molecules
The structure of organic molecules: alkanes and their isomers
Drawing organic structures
The shapes of organic molecules
Naming alkanes
Properties of alkanes
Reactions of alkanes

Drawing and naming cycloalkanes

 Alkenes and Alkynes
Alkenes and alkynes
Naming alkenes and alkynes
The structure of alkenes: cis–trans isomerism
Properties of alkenes and alkynes
Types of organic reactions
Reactions of alkenes and alkynes

Aromatic Compounds
Alkene polymers
Aromatic compounds and the structure of benzene
Naming aromatic compounds
Reactions of aromatic compounds

Some common alcohols
Naming alcohols
Properties of alcohols, acidity of alcohols
Reactions of alcohols

Some common phenols
Acidity of phenols

 Some Compounds with Oxygen, Sulfur, or a Halogen
Thiols and disulfides
Halogen-containing compounds


Properties of amines
Heterocyclic nitrogen compounds
Basicity of amines

The carbonyl group
Naming aldehydes
Properties of aldehydes
Some Common aldehydes
Oxidation of aldehydes
Reduction of aldehydes

Naming ketones
Properties of ketones
Some Common ketones
Reduction of ketones

Carboxylic Acids and their Derivatives
Carboxylic acids and their derivatives: properties and names
Some common carboxylic acids
Acidity of carboxylic acids
Reactions of carboxylic acids: ester and amide formation
Hydrolysis of esters and amides

Amino Acids and Proteins
Amino acids structures
Acid–base properties of amino acids
Chemical properties of proteins

Enzymes and Vitamins
Catalysis by enzymes
How enzymes work
Vitamins and minerals

Classification of carbohydrates
The D and L families of sugars: drawing sugar molecules
Structure of glucose
Disaccharides, structure of maltose
Some important polysaccharides
Properties of carbohydrates

Structure and classification of lipids
Fatty acids and their esters
Properties of fats and oils

Nucleic Acids and Protein Synthesis
DNA, chromosomes, and genes
Composition of nucleic acids
The structure of nucleic acid chains
Base pairing in DNA: the Watson–Crick model


Force, mass, Newton’s 1st, 2nd and 3rd law
Free-body diagrams
Contact forces: normal force and friction force
Linear momentum, impulse, conservation of momentum
Elastic and inelastic collisions, center of mass, translational motion

Electric currents
Electric current,
Ohm’s law , electrical resistance and resistors
Electric power
EMF and terminal voltage.
Resistors in series and parallel, Kirchhoff’s rules

Electric field
Electric charge, static electricity, induced charge, electric field, field lines, electric potential, equipotential lines,
Coulomb’s law
Electric field, conductors and dielectrics, charge distribution
Capacitance, storage of electric energy, capacitors in series and in parallel